Recently in Science Category

Science project anyone?

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Sweet little girl - from Canadian Broadcasting Company:

'She's perfect and she's beautiful': Frozen baby woolly mammoth discovered in Yukon gold fields
A perfect storm of events has led to a once-in-a-lifetime discovery for a gold miner, a First Nation, a veteran paleontologist and a territory.

"I don't know how to process it all right now, to be honest with you. It's amazing," said Dr. Grant Zazula, the Yukon government's paleontologist.

A little after noon on June 21, National Indigenous People's Day, a young miner working in Yukon's Eureka Creek, south of Dawson City, was digging up muck using a front end loader when he struck something.

He stopped and called his boss who went to see him right away.

When he arrived, Treadstone Mining's Brian McCaughan put a stop to the operation on the spot.

Within half an hour, Zazula received a picture of the discovery.

According to Zazula, the miner had made the "most important discovery in paleontology in North America."

It was a whole baby woolly mammoth, only the second one ever found in the world, and the first in North America.

"She has a trunk. She has a tail. She has tiny little ears. She has the little prehensile end of the trunk where she could use it to grab grass," said Zazula.

"She's perfect and she's beautiful."

Great photo - almost expect her to wake up, shake off the mud and start romping around.  Probably been through a few freeze/thaw cycles so no word (yet) on the quality of the genetic material - if they are able to do somatic cell nuclear transfer.  That would be very cool.

Down the 'ole memory hole

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A report from MSN (Microsoft News) published an inconvenient truth - unvaccinated people had fewer cases of "severe" COVID-19.  Needless to say, the link to the story redirects to the MSN Homepage.

See for yourself: https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/medical/severe-covid-19-rare-in-unvaccinated-people-survey-reveals/ar-AAYr5fF

Fortunately, The Internet Archive remembers:

Severe COVID-19 ‘Rare’ In Unvaccinated People, Survey Reveals
A survey has found that people who did not get the vaccine had a lower rate of suffering severe COVID-19 amid the pandemic.

The survey uploaded to the preprint server ResearchGate presented data from more than 18,500 respondents from the “Control Group” project with more than 300,000 overall participants. An analysis revealed that compared to those who got jabbed, unvaccinated people reported fewer hospitalizations.

The international survey also found that the unvaccinated people from more than 175 countries were more likely to self-care to prevent and manage COVID-19 infection. They used natural products like vitamin D, vitamin C, zinc, quercetin, and drugs, such as ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine.

The paper can be found here: Self-reported outcomes, choices and discrimination among a global COVID-19 unvaccinated cohort

So true - quantum mechanics

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From Chris Lynch:

20220620-quantum.jpg

So true...

Physics teachers

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Found over at Chris Lynch's

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Now this could be fun - Azores

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Potential volcanic action - from Global News:

I have been following the quakes for the last month or so - a very similar thing happened last year on the Spanish island of La Palma.

Yikes - big earthquake in Japan

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7.3 Magnitude 63.1km depth so not as strong on the surface but still...

No tsunami warning for CONUS or Hawaii 

And happy Pi day everyone

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A wise Latina - Justice Sotomayor

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These notes from an upcoming case:

20220301-sotomayor.jpg

Unnnhhhhhh...  Has anyone bothered to explain photosynthesis to her?  How plants take in sunlight, water and carbon dioxide and using chlorophyll as a catalyst, make glucose.  The resultant waste product is oxygen gas. If you eliminated all CO2 on this planet, you would eliminate all green plants and algae.  You would condemn the planet to death by starvation.

Carbon dioxide is not a toxin - it is plant food.  Simple as that.

URM - driving around

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It has been interesting noticing my blatant prejudice against brick and masonry buildings on this trip.
I look at a 3-4 story brick building and the first thing that comes into my mind is: "Ewwww - URM" 

The left coast is a lot younger than this area so Unreinforced masonry buildings are an object of aversion due to the high level of seismic activity. In Appalachia, things are a lot quieter. Sure, there were the New Madrid quakes of 1811 and 1812 (three major ones) but that fault zone is over 400 miles away.

A good thing to be aware of but not as much a concern here as it is out there in shaky-town...

The Tsunami hits Oregon

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Ho. Li. Crap - after coming so far.  I pray for Tonga.

Here is a GIF from Japan's Himawari-8 weather satellite:

20220115-tonga.gif

Interesting news item - moon rocks

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From Gizmodo:

Vacuum-Sealed Container From 1972 Moon Landing Will Finally Be Opened
Apollo mission planners were really smart. Recognizing that future scientists will have better tools and richer scientific insights, they refrained from opening a portion of the lunar samples returned from the historic Apollo missions. One of these sample containers, after sitting untouched for 50 years, is now set to be opened.

The sample in question was collected by Gene Cernan in 1972. The Apollo 17 astronaut was working in the Taurus-Littrow Valley when he hammered a 28-inch-long (70 cm) tube into the surface, which he did to collect samples of lunar soil and gas. The lower half of this canister was sealed while Cernan was still on the Moon. Back on Earth, the canister was placed in yet another vacuum chamber for good measure. Known as the 73001 Apollo sample container, it remains untouched to this very day.

But the time has come to open this vessel and investigate its precious cargo, according to a European Space Agency press release. The hope is that lunar gases might be present inside, specifically hydrogen, helium, and other light gases. Analysis of these gases could further our understanding of lunar geology and shed new light on how to best store future samples, whether they be gathered on asteroids, the Moon, or Mars.

Wonder if Cernan left any kind of surprise there. An Easter Egg.  Still, this will be an interesting story to follow. Very smart move by the planners.  You think about the changes that computers have made in 50 years.  Analytical chemistry has advanced just as much - what once was several days in the lab and several thousand dollars worth of reagents is now a simple tabletop test for 50¢

Post mortem - Oregon Earthquakes

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Good initial write-up on the quake swarm a couple days ago.  From the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network:

Blanco Fracture Zone swarm: Active, unusual, interesting... but not concerning
As of the writing of this blog (Dec 9, noon), 88 earthquakes have popped off on the Western extent of the Blanco Fracture Zone. Fifteen have been magnitude 5.0 and greater with the two largest events being M5.8. The smallest (reported) earthquake is M3.2 though there surely are many smaller ones, but the seismic stations used to detect and locate the events are 300 miles away on land. At those distances, the ground motions from smaller earthquakes will fall below background noise levels and thus go undetected. The magnitude scale is logarithmic, such that a M5.0 earthquake releases 32 times the amount of energy as a M4.0, so the vast majority of action has been properly detected, characterized and cataloged. Note that while the USGS lists all of the event depths as 10 km, their actual depths are best described as “shallow”. Constraining depths with data from stations far away and for shallow events is very difficult, so 10 km is just a default number given for shallow events with source-station geometries like we have here.

And some history:

How unusual is this? In the history of well-recorded M4.5 and greater earthquakes in this region, which is about five decades long, there have been many other swarms, including in the summer of 2019 when the largest event was a M6.3. However, there has not been as active a swarm as this one in terms of number of moderate sized events (see the figure below).

What defines a “swarm”? It’s a nebulous term that generally means a group of earthquakes close in space and time, depending on the background seismicity and how long a time window you are considering. Those can vary greatly, but in general we talk about swarms as being within a distance of a few rupture lengths of the largest event(s) and lasting a few days in time. What are the rupture lengths of these events? The two M5.8s probably had rupture lengths of a few miles long, which may have seen slip of maybe a foot or so. If these events were on land and you were nearby, 24 magnitude 4.5-5.8 earthquakes within a day would be a lot of shaking! And maybe some cracked streets and foundations and a few broken plates, but probably not collapsed buildings.

More at the site.  There is a lot more number-crunching that needs to be done but this is a great preliminary report.

My personal hope was that this was the Cascadia Subduction Zone letting off some steam.  Not to be:

The slip on these earthquakes are unlikely to have caused significant changes in stress along the Cascadia Subduction Zone 200 km closer to shore, which in the past has produced M9 earthquakes as recently as January 26, 1700. This is true for a few reasons:

So we are still primed and ready and overdue for a big one.  The last time it let loose was in 1700.  These quakes happen about every 300 years.  That would make the next one due in 2000.  Oh. Wait.

A very well researched and fascinating telling of the 1700 quake can be found here:

The orphan tsunami of 1700—Japanese clues to a parent earthquake in North America

Just one two this morning.  Quite the cluster of quakes - should be a writeup in a few days analyzing this event.

A bit wobbly - Oregon coast

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UPDATE: Two more - one 5.3 and one 5.5  Good that it is a bunch of smaller quakes.  It could be saving it all up for one big rip.

UPDATE:  Upgraded from 5.7 to 5.8 Mag.

UPDATE:  4:37PM PST  Another one - 5.7 Mag this time.  The Magnitude scale is logarithmic so an increase of one whole number represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude as measured on a seismogram.

Glad I don't live on the Pacific coast - I am inland and sheltered by a few land masses.
A conscious decision on my part.   From the USGS:

20211207-quake.jpg

Those red dots are a 5.5 Mag quake - depth is 10km which is about optimal for coupling to the surface.
No tsunami danger at this time.

My concern is the Cascadia Subduction Zone - it experiences a 9 Mag quake every couple hundred years or so — 41 of them so far.  The tsunamis from these events are huge. We are seriously overdue.

A brilliant hack - Dragonfly (updated)

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I had written about the original back in 2015: A brilliant hack - Dragonfly

Back then, it was an array of ten commercial telephoto lenses synched together.  Much simpler and cheaper to implement than a mirror of that same size. Fast forward to today. From DP Review:

Canon USA is providing 120 EF 400mm F2.8 lenses to expand Dragonfly Telephoto Array
Canon USA has announced that the company will provide technical assistance to Project Dragonfly, an international research team from Yale University and the University of Toronto, in its plan to expand the Dragonfly Telephoto Array.

The Dragonfly Telephoto Array is a telescope concept designed to capture images of extremely faint structures in the night sky. It is believed that the structures offer insight into the distribution and nature of dark matter.

Canon USA will provide the team with 120 Canon EF 400mm F2.8L IS II USM large-aperture super-telephoto lenses. Canon Inc. will also provide technical assistance. The telephoto array currently consists of 48 Canon EF 40mm F2.8L IS II USM lenses given to the team in 2013 and 2015. The lenses are arranged in two clusters of 24. The additional 120 primes will significantly enhance the array's capabilities.

If they tried to do this with a conventional mirrored telescope, the mirror would be 1.8 meters in diameter but with a focal length of only 40cm (400mm).  There are, of course, light losses in any optical system but the theoretical aperture would be F 0.22 - that is a very fast lens (there are some commercial lenses with F 0.9 but they are rare and expensive - here is the fascinating story of one that is F 0.7)   The curvature on a conventional mirror would be prohibitively deep but easy to do with a simple lens - each lens is focused on a CCD sensor and the images are combined and stacked to give a lot better detail of fine structure.

Here is one cluster with 24 lenses:

20211119-dragon.jpg

The scope's home page is here: The Dragonfly Telephoto Array

It was cloudy and I missed it - Aurora

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Saw the cloud deck pulsating with lights but an overall dismal display.  The K-Index was rockin' - still is:

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Oh well...

Running late - solar storm

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There was a large Coronal Mass Ejection a few days ago and we were forecast to have some nice aurora borealis last night.  No such luck - it was running slow and just now is hitting the Earth's magnetosphere.

20211031-kindex01.jpg

So we will have the aurora but in the daytime.  It needs to be at Six before we can get a good display.  This updates every three hours or so.  We what happens when it gets close to dusk tonight - see if there is any activity remaining.

Planetary K-Index needs to be around a six for there to be a good chance of aurora.  It's been pretty quiet out there but hit four now and who knows...  Getting my camera stuff out in case. Gorgeous clear skies and I am looking north over the water so perfect location.

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See what happens...

Wise words - Science

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From 90 Miles:

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Sometimes, the gods smile - Rare Earths

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Fscking brilliant.  From Phys Org:

Environmentally hazardous coal waste diminished by citric acid
In one of nature's unexpected bounties, a harmless food-grade solvent has been used to extract highly sought rare-earth metals from coal ash, reducing the amount of ash without damaging the environment and at the same time increasing an important national resource.

Coal ash is the unwanted but widely present residue of coal-fired power. Rare-earth metals are used for a variety of high-tech equipment from smartphones to submarines.

The separation method, which uses carbon dioxide, water and food-grade citric acid, is the subject of a Sandia National Laboratories patent application.

"This technique not only recovers rare-earth metals in an environmentally harmless manner but would actually improve environments by reducing the toxicity of coal waste dotting America," said Guangping Xu, lead Sandia researcher on the project.

"Harmless extraction of rare-earth metals from coal ash not only provides a national source of materials essential for computer chips, smart phones and other high-tech products—including fighter jets and submarines—but also makes the coal ash cleaner and less toxic, enabling its direct reuse as concrete filler or agricultural topsoil," he said.

The method, if widely adopted, could make coal ash, currently an environmental pariah, into a commercially viable product, Xu said.

Very cool...

The Winter storm of 2021 - water height

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The mighty Stillaguamish river is monitored where it enters the ocean. One of the readings is height and because the sensor is right at the confluence, it is tidally influenced (their term of art).  You can see the effect of the storm as it pushed the ocean in front of it:

20211026-river.png

The storm hit on the 25th and we are still feeing its effects today (the 26th).  Several feet higher than "normal".

Happy Mole Day

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6:02PM on 10/23 for those Chemists among us.

From National Day (fun website btw):

National Mole Day – October 23, 2021
October 23 between 6.02 am and 6:02pm is National Mole Day. It’s a basic chemistry algorithm, and not about those funny looking creatures called moles. It commemorates chemistry’s measuring unit called “Avogadro’s Number”. The day is celebrated as a means to bring awareness and create interest in the study of Chemistry. The day is celebrated by schools around the USA by doing mole and chemistry themed activities. In scientific terms, a mole is in relation to the molar mass of a given molecule. A mole is literally a unit of measurement to reflect an amount of a chemical substance.

Carbon has an Atomic Weight of 12.  12 Grams of Carbon is one Mole.  One Mole contains 6.02*1023rd atoms. Handy measurement when dealing with macro quantities of chemicals. Also really good for quantifying the strength of a solution - a 0.5 Molar solution of HCl

There is a difference between the two

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One Year Later - Great Barrington

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It has been one year already - turns out, they were right. Quelle suprise
From the American Institute for Economic Research:

The Great Barrington Declaration One Year On
From October 2-4, 2020, the American Institute for Economic Research hosted a small conference for scientists to discuss the harms of the Covid-19 lockdowns, and maybe hint at a path back to normal life. Organized by Martin Kulldorff, Sunetra Gupta, and Jay Bhattacharya, the conference made a scientific case for shifting away from the heavy-handed lockdowns of the initial Spring 2020 outbreak. On their final day together in Great Barrington, the scientists wrote a short statement of principles, calling it the Great Barrington Declaration. This Declaration, their Declaration, touched a nerve well beyond the scientific community, and well beyond anything they or AIER could have expected. So here we are, a year later. Where do we stand?

The aim that our guests had in offering the Great Barrington Declaration was to spark scientific dialogue that had been missing from the lockdown discussions until that point. It was AIER’s goal to facilitate this dialogue. The Declaration was a success in bringing, for the first time since the pandemic started, an anti-lockdown voice to mainstream policy discussion. The signatories’ stance was generally in line with the pre-pandemic plans that many, if not most mainstream authorities, (the World Health Organization, the epidemiology center at Johns Hopkins University, and the Centers for Disease Control to name just three) held. People tend to forget what the pre-2020 conventional wisdom on pandemics even was.

As successful as we think the Great Barrington Declaration was, it failed in a number of respects as well. We did not, for example, anticipate the vilification the Declaration would receive from any number of people, ranging from the progressive left to self-described libertarians.

If you are taking flak, you are over the target.  An interesting read.  They had it nailed down perfectly and people did not listen.

It didn't really get going until after I was asleep.  Here is a video from Cliff Mass and the Skunk Bay Weather website:

Look up tonight

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Possibility of Aurora Borealis in the higher latitudes

Iceland is experiencing some beautiful displays

Plnetary K-Index is high

Aliens? Ho. Li. Crap.

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Big comet.  It was first reported in June of this year.  Now that people know about it, its image was first registered by a deep-sky camera in 2014. From NOIR Lab:

Giant Comet Found in Outer Solar System by Dark Energy Survey
A giant comet has been discovered by two astronomers following a comprehensive search of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The comet, which is estimated to be 100–200 kilometers across, or about 10 times the diameter of most comets, is an icy relic flung out of the Solar System by the migrating giant planets in the early history of the Solar System. This comet is quite unlike any other seen before and the huge size estimate is based on how much sunlight it reflects. 

Pedro Bernardinelli and Gary Bernstein, of the University of Pennsylvania, found the comet — named Comet Bernardinelli-Bernstein (with the designation C/2014 UN271) — hidden among data collected by the 570-megapixel Dark Energy Camera (DECam) mounted on the Víctor M. Blanco 4-meter Telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The analysis of data from the Dark Energy Survey is supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the DECam science archive is curated by the Community Science and Data Center (CSDC) at NSF’s NOIRLab. CTIO and CSDC are Programs of NOIRLab.

And from Science Alert, Sept. 30, 2021

Gigantic Comet Approaching From Outer Solar System May Be The Largest Ever Seen
A comet so huge it was initially mistaken for a dwarf planet is on an inward-bound trajectory from the outer Solar System

There's no reason to worry – C/2014 UN271 (Bernardinelli-Bernstein), as the comet is called, will approach no closer to the Sun than just outside the orbit of Saturn. But its large size and relative closeness will afford a rare opportunity to study a pristine object from the Oort Cloud, and find new information about the formation of the Solar System.

They are not expecting it to be visible to the naked eye.  Still...

A three-fer - volcanic activity

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First Iceland a couple months ago
Next, the Canary Islands
Now? From the United States Geological Survey:

Photo and Video Chronology – Kīlauea – September 30, 2021
A new eruption at Kīlauea's summit began at approximately 3:20 p.m. HST on September 29, 2021. Lava activity is currently confined within Halema'uma'u crater. Gas emissions and seismic activity at the summit remain elevated. HVO field crews—equipped with specialized safety gear—monitor the eruption from within the closed area of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park with NPS permission.

Some great photos and video at the site. We live on a dynamic planet.

About that volcano...

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Which volcano? This volcano: A bit of goings on in the Canary Islands (here too)

The BBC had a good article on the potential for disaster (August 10th, 2004)

Expert slams wave threat inertia
Bill McGuire of the Benfield Grieg Hazard Research Centre said no one was keeping a proper watch on the mountain.

If Cumbre Vieja volcano erupts, it may send a rock slab the size of a small island crashing into the sea, creating a huge tidal wave, or tsunami.

Walls of water 300 feet high would travel to the US at the speed of a jet.

Within three hours, the wave would swamp the east coast of Africa, within five hours it would reach southern England and within 12 it could hit America's east coast.

The rock is in the process of slipping into the sea, but the trigger that sends it into the Atlantic is likely to be an eruption of Cumbre Vieja. According to Professor McGuire, Cumbre Vieja could blow "any time".

Segue to now - the links above. The volcano has started to erupt.  Now?
From the Beeb, September 19th:

Canary Islands: Lava from erupting volcano destroys homes
A volcano eruption on La Palma in the Spanish Canary Islands has destroyed houses and forced about 5,500 residents to evacuate.

Lava from the Cumbre Vieja volcano has been pouring downhill since Sunday's eruption, devastating everything in its path.

Local officials said about 100 houses have been destroyed so far.

From Poandpo, September 20th:

Spanish minister after Canary volcano eruption: That's great attraction
Spain’s tourism minister Reyes Maroto said the government wanted to reassure tourists already on La Palma or headed there that the island was still safe despite the eruption.

“The most important thing right now is reassuring tourists who have been affected, and also those who may be travelling to the island today or during the course of the week,” she told Canal Sur radio.

“We’re providing information so that tourists can travel to the island and witness something undoubtedly unprecedented for themselves. That information will let tourists know that the island is open and also whether their hotel has been affected so they can stay elsewhere and enjoy their holidays.

That is playing a little too loose for my tastes.  Things can change in a heartbeat.
From MSN/USA Today, September 25th:

Spanish volcano eruption escalates, prompting evacuations and airport closure
Seven days after a volcano on La Palma erupted, lava flow and ash continue to spread shutting down the local airport and leaving hundreds without a home. As of Friday, almost 6,000 people have evacuated.

The government is working to locate emergency housing for the affected families as researchers are unsure when the ash and lava flow will stop. 

And it's getting bigger - Associated Press, September 20th:

Volcanic ash cloud closes La Palma airport; new vent emerges
The airport on the Spanish island of La Palma shut down Saturday because of an ash cloud spewing out of a volcano that has been erupting for a week, and scientists said another volcanic vent opened up, exposing islanders to possible new dangers.

The intensity of the eruption that began Sept. 19 has increased in recent days, prompting the evacuation of three additional villages on the island, part of Spain’s Canary Islands archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean off northwest Africa. Almost 7,000 people have been forced to abandon their homes.

The recent volcanic eruption is the first since 1971 on La Palma, which has a population of 85,000.

Looks like this will be going on for a while. No sign of an underwater slide yet but...

UPDATE: Some good video:

You will never get a handle on Carbon Dioxide (otherwise known as Plant Food).
From SciTech Daily:

Deadwood Releasing 10.9 Gigatons of Carbon Every Year – More Than All Fossil Fuel Emissions Combined
Decaying wood releases around 10.9 gigatons of carbon worldwide every year, according to a new study by an international team of scientists.

This is roughly equivalent to 115 percent of fossil fuel emissions.

Co-author of the study Professor David Lindenmayer from The Australian National University (ANU) says it’s the first time researchers have been able to quantify the contribution of deadwood to the global carbon cycle.

“Until now, little has been known about the role of dead trees,” Professor Lindenmayer said.

“We know living trees play a vital role in absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. But up until now, we didn’t know what happens when those trees decompose. It turns out, it has a massive impact.”

Yeah - photosynthesis takes in Sunlight, Water and CO2 and uses these to create the complex carbohydrates that the plants need to thrive.  When the plant dies, the left-over materials are recycled back to nature.  The CO2 is freed up for the next plant that needs it.  Earth once had CO2 over 9,000ppm - we are currently at 450ppm or thereabouts.

A bit of goings on in the Canary Islands

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They had been having some earthquakes a few days ago - this was caused by magma movement.
Now, the magma has broken through and is really moving - from GranCanariaTv

Some interesting news - Canary Islands

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The Canary Islands are volcanic - still very active.  If they let go, they are lined up perfectly to launch the mother of all tsunamis right at our East Coast. I will miss Boston - there are some fun places there.  Cape Cod, Cape Ann, the North Shore. Maine.  But, if NYC and DC get taken out too?  I will not shed too many tears.  Two headlines:

Interesting times...

It's that damned climate change.  I knew it was up to no good. Yeah.  But...
From Pacific Northwest treasure Cliff Mass:

The Walden Wildfire and Climate Change: Why Are Major Media and Politicians Distorting the Truth?
If the nation and world are going to deal with climate change, it is essential that the public is given accurate information.

Unfortunately, a number of media outlets (e.g., the Seattle Times and NPR), politicians, and activist groups are consistently distorting the truth. There are few better examples of this problematic behavior than claims that the wildfire that destroyed the eastern Washington town of Malden in September 2020 was the result of climate change.

This blog will provide you with facts based on data, peer-reviewed papers, and government reports. You can decide whether some folks are misinforming you.

The Claims
During the past year, a number of media outlets, politicians, and climate activist groups have made unfounded claims that the Malden/Babb fire, which destroyed the town of Malden (roughly 30 miles south of Spokane) was the result of human-induced global warming.

For example, last week the Seattle Times did a long story on the Malden fire and concluded.

National Public Radio, including local NPR station KNKX, did a story with the suggestion that the fires were the result of "global warming hitting us hard."

And then there is our governor, who claimed the Malden conflagration was a "climate fire"

Cliff proceeds to slay all of these dragons with the twin swords of science and historical record. "Climate fire"? no such thing. Much more at the site - photos, links to the actual data. Facts. Inconvenient truths.

A good look at Ivermectin

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Unbiased.  From Science Direct:

Ivermectin: a multifaceted drug of Nobel prize-honoured distinction with indicated efficacy against a new global scourge, COVID-19

Abstract
In 2015, the Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine, in its only award for treatments of infectious diseases since six decades prior, honoured the discovery of ivermectin (IVM), a multifaceted drug deployed against some of the world’s most devastating tropical diseases. Since March 2020, when IVM was first used against a new global scourge, COVID-19, more than 20 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have tracked such inpatient and outpatient treatments. Six of seven meta-analyses of IVM treatment RCTs reporting in 2021 found notable reductions in COVID-19 fatalities, with a mean 31% relative risk of mortality vs. controls. During mass IVM treatments in Peru, excess deaths fell by a mean of 74% over 30 days in its ten states with the most extensive treatments. Reductions in deaths correlated with the extent of IVM distributions in all 25 states with p < 0.002. Sharp reductions in morbidity using IVM were also observed in two animal models, of SARS-CoV-2 and a related betacoronavirus. The indicated biological mechanism of IVM, competitive binding with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, is likely non-epitope specific, possibly yielding full efficacy against emerging viral mutant strains.

Much more at the site.  It is worth noting that Science Direct is a division of Elsevier Publishing - a major publisher of scientific papers.  This is not a fly-by-night operation by any means. They publish The Lancet, CELL, Gray's Anatomy and some 2,500 other Journals and Publications.

A bit close to home - earthquake

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Deep (14.3 miles) and fairly small (Mag 2.5) - still...

M 2.5 - 13 km WNW of Ault Field, Washington

That is right across the bay from my back door. 1:32 PM this afternoon.

Crap - big quake in Haiti

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About 5:30 AM their time - from USGS:

M 7.2 - 12 km NE of Saint-Louis du Sud, Haiti

Only 10km (6 miles) deep so this will be a major one.

No tsunami threat reported.

The 2010 quake in Haiti was where these people got their start: Team Rubicon
Still doing incredible work - my favorite charity organization.

It was deep and the tsunami warning has since been canceled but still.
From the Alaska Earthquake Center:

LARGEST EARTHQUAKE IN 50 YEARS: WHAT WE KNOW SO FAR
At 10:15pm Alaska time on July 28, a magnitude 8.2 earthquake struck offshore of the Alaska Peninsula, the largest U.S. earthquake in 50 years. The Chignik Earthquake depth was approximately 28.5 miles, an intermediate-depth earthquake.

The Chignik Earthquake occurred relatively close (about 45 miles) to the location of the M7.6 Simeonof Island Earthquake that ruptured July 21, 2020. The Chignik Earthquake seems to be related to the earlier earthquake; both occurred along the interface between the subducting Pacific and overriding North America plates, although the Chignik Earthquake was the deeper of the two. The Alaska Peninsula is a seismically active region where thousands of earthquakes occur each year. The largest earthquakes are located along the interface, which is called the Aleutian megathrust. The M8.2 event ruptured this interface in the region between the Shumagin Islands to southwest and Kodiak Island to northeast. Previously, the 1938 M8.3 earthquake ruptured this section of the interface.

Perryville and Chignik are the nearest communities to the epicenter of the Chignik Earthquake, and felt the highest intensity shaking. There were also multiple felt reports from Alaska communities as far away as the Mat-Su Valley in Southcentral Alaska. So far, the aftershock rate has been active, so residents of the region may continue to feel shaking. The largest aftershock at the time of this article was a M6.1 about four minutes after the mainshock.

Because of the offshore location, the National Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami warning for much of coastal Alaska. Several communities issued evacuations. Recorded wave heights were under a foot, however, and the warning was downgraded a couple hours after the event.

Still waiting for the big one down here.  We live on a fairly young and active planet.

That zone is really active - USGS Earthquake map again:

20210709-quake.jpg

From the USGS Earthquake Map (zoomed in):

20210708-quake.jpg

Who knows - maybe it will fall off into the Pacific Ocean after all.

Started at 3:49 PM this afternoon with a 5.9 Mag only 9.83 km (5.7 miles) deep and it has been rattling the china every few minutes since then.  Glad that these are frequent - a lot of strain and it would have been major if everything had let go at once.

The Sacramento, CA CBS affiliate has the story with some videos:

5.9-Magnitude Earthquake Hits Near California-Nevada Border
The US Geological Survey reports that a 5.9-magnitude earthquake happened on the eastern side of the Sierra in California, 19 miles SSW of Smith Valley, Nevada.

There were also more than a dozen aftershocks ranging from 3.1 up to 4.2, which were near the towns of Walker, Markleeville, Dardanelle, and Coleville. They all happened just within minutes of each other.

5.9 is enough for some structural damage, stuff falling off shelves, some buckling of roads.
Keep waiting for the big one to hit here - overdue...

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